Interventional Radiology is a branch of minimally invasive surgery, which uses image-guided procedures to treat and diagnose diseases. Low dose X-ray imaging (called fluoroscopy) provides the surgeon with real-time feedback to follow and control the motion of the organs and the surgical tools. These are rather long-lasting procedures and, due to the use of ionizing radiations, they present some associated risks potentially inducing cancers. Conventionally a fluoroscopic procedure requires from 15 to 30 frames per second. In order to reduce both operator and patient exposure to radiation, low rate fluoroscopy at 7.5 fps can be performed, but this entails a loss of useful medical information and a lack of reactivity from the system.
In order to preserve the display frame rate, while further reducing the acquisition frame rate, fluoroscopic images could be dropped and replaced by simulated images. But even if computer-based simulation has made tremendous progress over the recent years, reaching a high level realism for training purpose, simulated images still deviate rapidly from real images acquired online. To achieve a high level of realism in the simulation, one element currently missing is the modeling of the vessel deformation. The objective of the internship is to investigate various strategies for simulating the deformation of vascular structures. The first option is to use surface models such as shells (see our previous work) or implicit surfaces (read more in this article) or volumetric meshing of the soft tissues outside of the vessels.